نفس‌الامر نزد ارسطو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکتری فلسفه اسلامی از دانشگاه تهران (پژوهشگر مستقل)

چکیده

مسألة اصلی این جستار آن است که: «نفس‌الامر» و مطابَق صدق نزد ارسطو به چه معنا است؟ در پاسخ به این مسأله نخست قوی‌ترین نسخة «نفس‌الامر» اندیشمندان برجستة مسلمان، یعنی «نفس‌الامر» به‌معنای خود واقع و ظرف ثبوت اشیای مربوطه، را در ارسطو ریشه‌یابی می‌کنیم. سپس در بررسی «نفس‌الامر» ارسطو به روش عقلی و به‌گونه‌ای نظام‌مند آثار او را تحلیل می‌کنیم و به استخراج دیدگاه او و نقد آن می‌پردازیم. هم‌چنین، از آن‌جا که یکی از مشکل‌های بسیار اساسی در تفسیر «نفس‌الامر» بحث امور عدمی است، در بررسی دیدگاه ارسطو بدان توجه ویژه‌ای خواهیم‌کرد. مثلاً پاسخ او به معمای عدم را به‌وسیلة قاعدة فرعیه به چالش خواهیم‌کشید و به تعارض‌آمیزی مفاد قاعدة سالبه به انتفای موضوع در آثار او اشاره خواهیم کرد. در ادامه به معنای عام «نفس‌الامر»، که می‌تواند صدق‌ساز امور عدمی را نیز تبیین کند، خواهیم‌پرداخت: «نفس‌الامر»، یا یک معنای عام وجود نزد ارسطو، یعنی متعلق‌های صدق چه متعلق هل‌بسیط و چه متعلق هل‌مرکب که گاه ایجابی‌اند و گاه سلبی. پس از تقویت همین معنای نفس‌الامر و اشاره به مشکل صدق‌ساز سلبی، در پایان خواهیم‌دید که دیدگاه ارسطو، با وجود مزایای خاص خود، در مورد «نفس‌الامر» برخی امور عدمی و «نفس‌الامر» امور ماهوی با دشواری‌هایی روبه‌رو است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Aristotle on Truth Makers

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahdi Asadi
PhD at Islamic philosophy
چکیده [English]

The essay first of all tries to find some sort of precedence about one of the strongest versions of Muslim thinkers ' theory of truth - making (Nafs – al – Amr) in Aristotle – a theory that is without any doubt one of the most important and difficult problems in the Muslim Philosophy and Theology throughout history. Then, the paper tries to analyze and criticize Aristotle’s theory of truth - making by a systematic method. Moreover, since the problem of the negative affairs has been so problematic and important in Muslim philosophy and logic and theology as well, the essay has an especial focus on the negative truth - makers in Aristotle ' view. Finally, it will have some hints to the certain difficulties of Aristotle's theory of truth - making such as non - existents and the eternal essential affairs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Truth-Maker
  • Truth
  • Aristotle
  • Non-Existents
  • Essential Affairs

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