نحوه و حدود معرفت به موجودات بر مبنای اصالت وجود

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار فلسفه اسلامی دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان

10.22061/orj.2020.1209

چکیده

بدون تردید، مبنای نخست حکمت متعالیه در بعد هستی شناسی، همان اصالت وجود است که بر اساس آن، چیزی جز وجودها و آثار وجودی آن‌ها، در دار هستی یافت نمی‌شود. ملاصدرا در جاهای مختلف آثارخویش، بیان می‌کند که معرفت حقیقی به وجودات تنها از طریق علم و کشفِ شهودی میسّر است. پرسشی که اینجا، خودنمایی می‌کند، این است که چگونه می‌توان بر اساس اصالت وجود، به وجودات، علم حضوری و حصولی پیدا کرد و چنین علمی تا چه حدّی می‌تواند ما را به شناخت حقیقی رهنمون شود؟ پاسخ اجمالی این است که علاوه بر علم حضوری با همه اقسامش، از طریق معقولات ثانیه فلسفی و مفاهیم ماهوی نیز می‌توان تا حدودی به موجوداتِ خارجی معرفت پیدا کرد و افزون بر ادراکات حضوری و حصولی عقلی، از طریق حواس نیز با موجوداتِ محسوس مواجه می‌شویم و از طریق همین مواجهه، به آن‌ها علم پیدا می‌کنیم. بنابراین اقسامی از علم حضوری و مفهومی (عقلی) و حسی به موجودات داریم؛ لکن باید دانست که هر معرفتی حدّ و چارچوب خاصّی دارد و دانستن این حدّها، خود، بخشی از حکمت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Mode and Limits of Knowledge of Beings Based on the Principality of Existence

نویسنده [English]

  • mansour imanpour
Associate professor, Islamic Philosophy, َAzarbaijan Shahid Madani University
چکیده [English]

There is no doubt that, the first ontological cornerstone for Transcendent philosophy is seen in the "principality of Existence", according to which  nothing is considered as real in the realm of existence except the being itself, and “existence” is not realized in the mind, because it is the simple and unfolded reality whose mode of being is the refusal of “nothingness” and being the primary source of acts or effects, and the true knowledge of existence is possible only through knowledge by presence and intuition.The question that arises here is that how beings can be perceived by presence or acquired knowledge and to what extent can such a knowledge lead us truly to knowledge? The aim of this research is to deal with this question. The concise answer is that, it is possible, to some extent, to gain knowledge of external beings by "Secondary intelligible" and "essential concepts", along with to "knowledge by presence" with all its kinds. For such concepts are abstracted from external beings and their comparison, and for the sake of this relationship, they are reflecting their own objects. In addition to "knowledge by presence" and "acquired knowledge", we also encounter creatures through senses and through this we know them. Therefore, there are various forms of knowledge of beings, and the knowledge of mankind is open to beings. However, it is worthy to note that knowing take place in a certain framework and conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • knowledge by presence
  • Knowledge
  • Recognition of Existence
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