از کوگیتو تا یقین (بررسی مقایسه ای یقین در حکمت صدرایی و فلسفه دکارتی با تأکید بر جنبة الاهیاتی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته کلام و فلسفه دین، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد دانشکده الهیات و معارف اسلامی، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

3 استادیار گروه دانشکده حقوق و الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.22061/orj.2020.1205

چکیده

یقین، از نگاه ملاصدرا تصدیق همراه با اعتقاد جازم و مطابق با واقع است که صرفاً با دستیابی به مبادی و اسباب  به مدد اتصال نفس قدسی با ملائکه و دریافت علوم از آن ها فراهم می­آید. یقین از نگاه دکارت، وضوح و تمایز­ی که در حوزة روابط اعداد ریاضی و هندسی وجود دارد، در زندگی عینی و واقعی هم جاری است و همان معیار یقین است که با یقین عقلی به وجود نفس شروع شده سپس جسم اثبات می شود و نهایتاً به اثبات جهان خارج می­انجامد. در اندیشه  الهیاتی هر دو، خدا معیار و پشتوانه یقین است. ملاصدرا با نگرش وجودی به مسأله یقین، یقین دکارتی را از بن بست عقل گرایی محض خارج نموده و با اعتقاد به اشتدادِ وجودی نفس و فعالیت و خلاقیت آن، مدعیِ تعامل حداکثری میان معرفت عقلی و شهودی است و نهایت مراتب یقین‌ را‌ به ساحت علم حضوری و شهودی می­رساند. مقالة حاضر با تبیین مسأله یقین در گذر اندیشه این دو فیلسوف به وجوه تشابه و تمایز این دو اندیشمند در مبانی و اصول این بحث اشاره دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

From Cogito to Certainty (A Comparative Study of Certainty in Mullah Sadra` Wisdom and Cartesian Philosophy with an Emphasis on the Theological Aspect)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azra Sadat Mousavipur 1
  • Mohsen Javadi 2
  • Babak Abbasi 3
1 PhD student in Philosophy of Religion and New Verbal Issues
2 Professor of Qom University
3 faculty member in research branch of the Islamic Azad University
چکیده [English]

Certainty, from the viewpoint of Mulla Sadra, is a dogmatic affirmation of a proposition corresponding to the reality; which is gained only by access to the sources and with the help of connecting to the angels and receiving the science and knowledge from them. But certainty, from Descartes's view, comes in different sense. According to him, the quality of clearness and distinction which is seen in mathematical and geometric numbers can be seen in real life. And with the same kind and degree of certainty, Descartes prove the existence of mind, God and finally the existence of corporal world. In the theology of both thinkers, God plays a central role to support the certainty. Mulla Sadra, with the existential attitude regarding the certainty, saved Cartesian certainty from pure rationalist deadlock and with the help of existential gradation of mind and its activity and creativity held the cooperation or interaction between intellectual knowledge and intuitive knowledge, and reaches the ultimate degree of certainty to knowledge by presence and intuitive knowledge.  The present paper deals with the issue of certainty with the aspects of similarity and the dissimilarities between the fundamentals and the principles of definitive discussion in the course of the thought of these two philosophers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Descartes
  • Sadra
  • Certainty
  • Certain Knowledge

Afzali, Ali (2005), Borhan Alamat Sanaati dar Falsafe Decart, Falsafeh, No. 9, (138 – 167). [In Persian]

Descartes, Reneh, (1997), Osule Falsafe, translated by Sanei Darehbidi, Tehran, Alhoda. [In Persian]

Descartes,Reneh, (1962), the philosophical works of Descaytes, edited and translated by Elizabeth halane and g.r.t Ross, 2 vols, lonon &New York, Cambridge. [In English]

………... , (2001), Taamolat dar Falsafe Oala, Ahmad Ahmadi, Tehran, Daneshgahi publisher. [In Persian]

………... , (1991), Taamolat dar Falsafe Oala, Ahmad Ahmadi, Tehran, Daneshgahi publisher. [In Persian]

………., (2006), Eaterazat va Pasokh-ha, translated by Ali Afzali, Tehran, Scientific and Cultural. . [In Persian]

….. ….. , (1993), Ghavaeed Hedayate Zehn, translated by Manoochehr Sanei Darehbidi, Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University. [In Persian]

Craig, Edward, (1998), Routlede Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge. [In English]

George. J .D, (1991), Reneh Descartes Critical, London and New York, Routledge. [In English]

Grabiner, Judith, (1995), «Descartes and Problem-Solving», in Mathematics Magazine, Vol 68, No 2. [In English]

Klein Peter, (1993), "Certainty", in A Companion to Epistemology, Edited by Jonathan Dancy & Ernest Sosa, London: Blackwell, vol 2, 3. [In English]

Jilson, Atin, (1995), Khoda va Falsafe, translated by Shahram Pazoki, Tehran, Haghighat publisher. [In Persian]

Katingham John, (2013), Decart, translated by Seyed Mostafa Shahr Aeeni, Tehran Ney Publisher. [In Persian]

Mesbah, Mohammad Taghi, (2012), Amoozesh Falsafe, Qom, Imam Khomeini Institute, first vol. [In Persian]

Mulla Sadra, (1981A), Shavahed Alrobobie fi Manahij Alsolukieh, edited by Seyed Jalale Din Ashtiani, Mashhad, Almarkaz Alnashr Publisher, second edition. [In Persian]

………... , (1992), Arshieh, edited and translated by Gholam Hossein Ahani, Tehran, Moala. [In Persian]

………... , (no date), Iqad Alna’imin, 1 volume, Tehran, Islamic Association of Philosophy and Philosophy of Iran, First edition .[In Arabic]

………... , (1975), Al- Mabdai va Al- Maad, edited by Seyed Jala Ashtiani, Tehran, Wisdom and Philosophy Society of Iran. [In Persian]

………... , (1981), Al-Hikma Almutaleyah fi Alasfar Alaqliya Alarbaeh, nine volumes, Beirut, Dar al-Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi, second edition. [In Arabic]

………... , (1981), Asrar Alayat, Tehran, Wisdom and Philosophy Society.

………... , (1996), Sharhe Asfar, Mesbahe Yazdi, Qom, Imam Khomeini Institute, second vol. [In Persian]

………... , (2007), Asfar, Sixth volume, Qom: School of Mostafavi. [In Arabic]

………... , (1988), Sharhe Osule Kafei, Tehran: Institute for Cultural Studies and Research. [In Persian]

………......, (2012), Sharhe Osule Kafei, Tehran, School of Mahmoudi. [In Persian]

………... , (1985), Mafatih al-qaib, Islamic Society of Wisdom and Philosophy of Iran, Tehran.[In Arabic]

………... , (1995), Resalatan Fe Al- Tasavor va Al- Tasdiq, Tehran Esmaielian publisher, First edition.[In Arabic]

………... , (2003), Be – Shavahed Alrobobie fi Manahij Alsolukieh, correction and suspension by Jalal Ashtiani, Qom, Boostan Book. [In Persian]

………..., (1985), Almashaer, by Henry Carban, Tahari publications. [In Persian]
………... , (2004A), Sharh va Taaligheh Sadr Almutealehin bar Elahiaate Shafa, Sadr al- Mutaleyahi, Tehrean, The Foundation of Sadar Islamic Philosophy. [In Persian] 

Rabinson, Dave and Garat, Chris, (1999(, Ghadame Aval, Decart, Mehdi Shakibania, Shiraz, First edition. [In Persian]

Descartes, Reneh, (1963), Discourse on Method and the Penguin books

university press Hoffman, Paul (1986), «The Unity of Descartes's Man» in The Philosophical Review, Vol. 95, No. 3. [In English]