بررسی و تحلیل تجرد تشکیکی نفس در تفکر ابن‌سینا و ملاصدرا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم انسانی، واحد بم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بم، ایران

2 استاد دانشکده الهیات دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

بی‌شک مسئله تجرد نفس و تشکیکی بودن آن ازجمله مسائل بسیار مهم و سرنوشت‌ساز فلسفی است که پیروان و منکران بسیاری داشته و همیشه محل بحث فیلسوفان و متکلمان در جهان اسلام بوده است. به نظر می‌رسد که اختلاف مبانی فلسفی ابن‌سینا و صدرا، امکان وحدت این دو متفکر را در اعتقاد به نظریة تشکیکی بودن تجرد نفس به حداقل برساند. انکار تجرد مثالی نفس و اعتقاد به تشکیک عامی توسط ابن‌سینا در قول مشهور و اعتقاد به‌مراتب و مدارج تجرد نفس از آغاز پیدایش تا مرتبه فوق عقلی ازنظر صدرا پیامدهای متعددی را در حوزه نفس‌شناسی به دنبال دارد. نگارنده به‌رغم همه این تفاوت‌ها در این نوشتار به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی کوشیده است تا توجیهی برای نظریة ابن‌سینا بر تشکیکی بودن تجرد نفس بیابد؛ و با ذکر شواهدی، تجرد تشکیکی صدرالمتألهین را، به‌رغم تفاوت بسیار با نظر ابن‌سینا، تقریری دیگر از تشکیک به معنای عامی ابن‌سینا بداند. بیان اقسام تشکیک و تأیید رابطه تنگاتنگ نفس و بدن ‌بر اساس اصول تشکیک وجود و حرکت جوهری اشتدادی وجود ازجمله مواردی است که از طریق آن می‌توان آرای دو فیلسوف موردنظر را به یکدیگر نزدیک کرد و در نهایت امر، موضع تشکیکی بودن تجرد نفس را، روشن و شفاف ساخت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on The Gradation Incorporeality of Mind According to Avicenna and Mulla Sadra

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzaneh Ranjbarzadeh 1
  • Sayyed Morteza Hosaini Shahroudi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Theology, Bam Unit, Islamic Azad University, Bam, Iran
2 professor of theology (Philosophy), Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Immateriality of the soul and its quality of gradation is very important and crucial issues, caused the division of philosophers into various groups in Muslim world. It seems that the philosophical basic differences between Avicenna and Sadra make it less impossible to establish a unified philosophical foundation between these two great Muslim philosophers on the issue of the gradation and incorporeality of mind. Celibacy (incorporeality) is an example for comparing them. The rejection of the Mesali Soul and the belief in the gradation of the soul in a general sense by Ibn Sina according to well- known common view, and confirming the degree and level of mind`s immateriality from the beginning of its creation up to its highest rational level of existence by Sadra, have several implications in the field of psychology. In spite of all these differences, in this article, the author attempts in descriptive-analytical method to find a justification for incorporeality of mind and its gradation on Ibn Sina's view and by citing evidences, the Sadr al-Mutawlīn theory of immateriality of mind and its gradation, despite the great difference with the view of Ibn Sina, is another form of expression of Ibn Sina's view on mind. Different kind of gradation, the close relationship between mind and body, and the motion of the substance are among the principles on the basis of which could make a connection between their view on mind in order to clarify the issue of immateriality gradation of mind.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Incorporeal
  • Gradation
  • Substantial Motion
  • Ibn Sina
  • Mulla Sadra

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