تحلیل هستی شناختی و معرفت شناختی معقولات ثانیه فلسفی در حکمت متعالیه (با تأکید بر مفهوم وجود)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار دانشگاه قم گروه معارف اسلامی

چکیده

مفاهیم فلسفی نه تنها در فلسفه، بلکه در سایر دانش­ها نیز دارای اهمیت زیادی بوده و قوام همه علوم وابسته به همین مفاهیم است. این مفاهیم، نه مانند معقولات اولی داده بلاواسطه حس هستند و نه مانند معقولات ثانیه منطقی ذهنی محض هستند؛ از همین رو فهم و تحلیل آنها در مکاتب مختلف با مشکل همراه بوده است. در بین معقولات، مفهوم «وجود» از جهات متعددی متمایز و مهم است. از طرفی در حکمت متعالیه وجود اصیل و ماهیت اعتباری است. بنابراین مفهوم وجود مصداق بالذات و مفاهیم ماهوی مصداق بالعرض دارند؛ از طرف دیگر ویژگی مشهور مفاهیم ماهوی این است که مصداق و مابازاء دارند و ویژگی شاخص معقولات ثانیه فلسفی این است که مابازاء ندارند. پس این سئوال قابل طرح است که مفهوم وجود معقول اول است یا معقول ثانی؟ این مقاله با روش تحلیلی توصیفی و با هدف تحلیل معقولات ثانیه فلسفی، ملاک و معیار دقیق­تری برای تمییز معقولات اولی و ثانیه ارائه کرده است. بنابر اصالت وجود، حقیقت وجود، خارجی و واقعی اما مفهوم وجود که با فعالیت ذهنی ساخته می­شود معقول ثانی و حاکی از واقعیت خارجی است و سایر مفاهیم فلسفیِ ثبوتی، حاکی از انحاء و شئون واقعیات خارجی هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Philosophical Secondary Intelligible in Transcendental Theosophy: With Emphasis on the Concept of Existence

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohsen Izadi
Associate professor of department of Islamic thought
چکیده [English]

Philosophical concepts have significant role in philosophy as well as in many other sciences and the basis of all sciences is made by these concepts. These concepts are, not neither the result of immediate contemplation on tangible world and nor as the result of pure mental activity, therefore, understanding and analyzing them has raised many problems in various philosophical schools. Among the intelligible, the concept of "existence" is distinct and important in many ways. On the one hand, in the Transcendent theosophy, existence is real per se while the quiddity is per accident so the concept of the existence has essentially direct referent but the concepts of quiddity fails it; On the other hand, the famous feature of the concepts that state essence of things is that they have objective reference and the famous feature of philosophical secondary intelligible is that they have not. So the question to which this research deal with can be posed: is the concept of existence a primary intelligible or a secondary intelligible? This paper by an analytical-descriptive method, aiming at analyzing the philosophical secondary intelligible, attempts to present a more precise criterion to distinguish the primary and the secondary intelligible concepts. According to this fact that existence is real, the existence itself is external and real, but the concept of existence created by mental activity is a secondary intelligible and representing the external reality. Other philosophical concepts that are affirmative represent the modes of external reality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • primary intelligible
  • philosophical secondary intelligible
  • logical secondary intelligible
  • existence
  • transcendental theosophy

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