مؤلفه های مابعدالطبیعی معنای زندگی به روایت اروین یالوم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه فلسفه دانشگاه الزهراء (س)

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد فلسفه و حکمت اسلامی دانشگاه الزهرا (س)

چکیده

به نظر یالوم، زندگی ذاتاً بی‌معناست و ما باید معنای زندگی را جعل کنیم نه کشف. پس زندگی معنادار از نظر او، منوط به رعایت یکسری اصول اخلاقی- روانشناختی‌ای است که خود بشر آنها را ابداع کرده است. این اصول اخلاقی- روانشناختی‌ مبتنی بر مؤلفه­های مابعدالطبیعی است. پرسش پایه این جستار به این قرار است: مؤلفه­های مابعدالطبیعی معنای زندگی به روایت اروین یالوم چیست؟ دستاوردهای پژوهش حاضر عبارت است از: 1. از نظر یالوم معنای زندگی در ارتباط با سه مؤلفه ارزش، دلواپسی­های غایی، و فرهنگ است؛2. جهان عاری از خدا، جهان عاری از معنا، و زندگی معنادار بدون حضور ماورای طبیعت از مهم­ترین مؤلفه­های هستی­شناختی معنای زندگی به روایت یالوم و مسئولیت، عشق، موقعیت مرزی (تجربیات مرزی)، احساس گناه، مرگ، آرزو و عواطف، ترس و  اضطراب، و تنهایی از مهم­ترین مؤلفه­های انسان­شناختی معنای زندگی از نظر یالوم است.پس بر این اساس می‌توان گفت: یالوم، زندگی را بدون حضور خدا و ماورای طبیعت که از مؤلفه‌های مابعدالطبیعی و هستی‌شناختی معناداری زندگی نزد اوست، معنادار می‌داند. زیرا او، حقیقتاً اعتقاد به خدا و همچنین ماورای طبیعت را از شروط اصلی و ضروریِ اخلاقی- انسانی زیستن زندگی بشر نمی‌داند که بخواهد زندگی را با توجه به این دو مقوله، معنادار لحاظ کند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Metaphysical Components of the Meaning of Life in Irvin D. Yalom`s View

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahnaz Shayanfar 1
  • Elahe qaleh 2
1 sh.shayanfar@alzahra.ac.ir
2 graduated from the Department of Philosophy and Islamic Theology of Al-Zahra University
چکیده [English]

According to Yalom, life is inherently meaningless and we have to make the meaning of life for ourselves, not discovering it. He holds that the meaningful life is the result of commitment to a set of ethical-psychological principles that has been invented by man. These moral-psychological principles are based on metaphysical components. The aim of this paper is to deal with the following question: What are the metaphysical components of the meaning of life in Irwin Yalom` s point of view? The achievements of this research are as follow: first, From the point of view of Yalom, the meaning of life is related to three components of value, ultimate anxieties, and culture; and the second a world free from God, a meaningless world, and meaningful life without believing in the metaphysical world are the most important ontological components of the meaningful life according to Yalom and responsibility, love, boundary position (border experiences), guilt, death, dreams and emotions, fear and anxiety, and loneliness are among the most important anthropological components of the meaning of life in Yalom` s view. Therefore, on this basis, it can be said that Yalom considers life as meaningful without God and beyond believing in metaphysical world, which are a significant metaphysical and ontological components of the meaningfulness of life for him. The reason to take such perspective is that he indeed does not consider the belief in God as well as the belief in metaphysical world as the necessary and essential moral conditions for human life in order to comply human life with such beliefs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Meaning of Life
  • Ultimate Anxiety
  • Metaphysical Components of the Meaning of Life
  • Irvin D.Yalom

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