نقد و بررسی نظریة انالوژی توماس آکویناس در مبحث صفات الهی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

معضل صفات الهی (صفات مشترک با انسان‌ها) و سخن معنی‌دار گفتن دربارۀ خداوند دغدغۀ مشترک فیلسوفان متأله و متکلمان در علم کلامو فلسفه است. معضلی که یک سوی آن به مسلک تعطیل می‌انجامد و سوی دیگرش به تشبیه و تجسیم راه‌های گوناگونی که پیش روی ایشان مطرح است، یعنی بی‌معنایی، معنای سلبی، معنای ایجابی استعاری و مجازی، معنای ایجابی حقیقی اعم از اشتراک معنوی، اشتراک لفظی و صفات علی در این مقال مورد بحث و بررسی قرار خواهد گرفت. انالوژی راه حل انحصاری توماس آکویناس است که فراتر از دو گانة اشتراک لفظی و معنوی با لحاظ دو مبنای مشابهت و علیت راهی نو را پیش روی فیلسوفان و متکلمان مسیحی هم برای مشکل مزبور و هم برای توجیه برخی عقاید خاص مانند تثلیث و تجسد گشوده است. در این مقال ضمن طرح تفصیلی انالوژی، مبانی، ابعاد، جایگاه و اقسام آن به نحوة تطبیق آن بر صفات الهی، سپس به بررسی و نقدهای وارد بر این نظریه و بیان مدلولات صحیح و نیز نارسایی‌های آن پرداخته خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Critical Study on Aquinas` Doctrine of Analogy Regarding Divine Attributes

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeed Rahimian
Professor at Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

The Problem of Divine attributes that are common between God and His creatures is a common concern between theologians and philosophers. A problem that has led in one hand to agnosticism (about God) and in the other hand to anthropomorphism. There are many ways enable them to solve this problem: being meaningless, Negative theology, metaphor, Univocal, Equivocal and causal attributes.  Analogy is the specific solution that Thomas Aquinas has put forward to deal with this problem. This solution goes beyond both Univocal and Equivocal ways and the basis of this solution is causality and likeness. The doctrine of analogy opened new ways for Christian philosophers and theologians to solve aforementioned problem and problem regarding some Christian concepts like trinity and incarnation. This paper deal with this problem and attempts to articulate the fundamental basis of doctrine of analogy, its dimensions, its functions, its divisions and its relation to Divine names. Then it will criticize the content and advantages of this theory by declaring its correct consequences and its weaknesses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Doctrine of Analogy
  • Aquinas
  • Divine Attributes
  • Univocally
  • Equivocally
  • Metaphor

Aquinas, Thomas, (1994) Book of Truth, trans by MulliganUSA, Indiana police Hackett publishing. [In English]

-------------------, (1952)Summa Theologica(ST),Ed by D.J.SullivanUK, William Benton Publisher. [In English]

-------------------, (1964) Summa Theologica(ST), Trans by McCabe, UK, Black friars, Oxford. [In English]

-------------------,  (1955-57) Summacontra gentiles(SCG), Anton Pegis.New York ,Image Books. [In English]

Davis, Brian,  (1993) the Thought of Thomas Aquinas, London, Oxford University Press. [In English]

--------------, (1985) thinking about God, UK, London. [In English]

--------------, (2012) And Stamp, Eleanor, Oxford handbook of Aquinas, Oxford University Press. [In English]

Erberhard,Jungel,(1983) God as the Mystery of the World , trans by Darrell,UK, Scotland ,Eardsman publishing. [In English]

Gilson, Etien ,(2005) Thomism, Trans by Dh Dehshiri, ehran, Hekmat publication. [In Persian]

------------- (1996) Principals of Christian Philosophy, Trans by Rezaei and Musawi, Qum, Bustan Ketab. [In Persian]

-------------, (2006) History of Christian medieval Philosophy translate by Gandomi Nasr Abadi,Tehran, Samt. [In Persian]

Gross, Richard, (2014) The Medieval Christian philosophers, London. [In English]

Hughes Christopher, (2015) Aquinas on Being, Goodness and God, London, Rutledge. [In English]

Ibn Maimun, Abd Allah, Dilalat al Haerin , Ed by H. Atay, Egept, Mktabat al Thiqafat al Diniyyainiyyah. [In Arabic]

Kenny, Anthony, (1969) Aquinas: A Collection of critical essays, USA, New York: Anchor Books. [In English]

Letham,Robert, (2004) The Holy Trinity,USA, New York Publishing. [In English]

Malekian. Mustafa, (2000) History of western, Qum, Imam Khomeyni Reaserch Institute. [In Persian]

Marenbon, John, (1998) Medieval Philosophy, London, Rutledge. [In English]

Mc Cabe, (1964), summa theologica, UK, Black friars, Oxford. [In English]

Mc Inerny , Ralph, (1961)  The Logic of Analogy, the Hague : Mortinus Ninjhoff. [In English]

------------, (1996) Aquinas and Analogy, USA, Washington D.C.

The Catholic University of American Press. [In English]

Middelton, Richard, (2005) the Liberating Image in Genesis 1, New York: Brazos Press. [In English]

Mowry, Catherine, (1991) God for us, USA, New York: Harper. [In English]

Robio, Mercedes, (2006) Aquinas and Maimonides on the possibility of the knowledge of God, Springer, Netherland. [In English]

Ross, James, (1969) Analogy as a rule of meaning in for religious language, USA, New York: Anchor Books. [In English]

Shields, Christopher, (2016) The philosophy of Aquinas, London: Oxford University Press. [In English]

Smith, Timothy, (2003) Thomas Aquinas: Training Theology, USA, New York: The Catholic University of America Press. [In English]

Tevelde, Rudi A, (1965) Participation and Substantiality in Thomas Aquinas, London, Brill. [In English]