یقین به مثابة ظهور وجود در فلسفة صدرایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجائی

چکیده

طیفی یقین را متواطی دانسته و طایفه­ای از یقین و یقینی­تر سخن می­گویند. پرسش اساسی این جستار این است: چگونه می­توان بر اساس نگرش وجودی از یقین مشکک سخن گفت؟ دستاوردهای این پژوهش عبارتند از: بنابرآنکه وجود مشکک است و یقین به مثابة رخداد وجودی یا حالتی از وجود مطرح است یقین بحسب ساحت هستی شناختی، مشکک است.در این جستار از چهار منظر و طریق، تشکیک در یقین استنباط شد: 1. یقین به مثابة ظهور و حالت وجود؛ 2. مکانیسم حصول و کارکرد وجودی؛ 3. مبادی شش­گانة یقین؛ 4. تنوع اسمایی. بنابر تشکیک در یقین در فلسفة صدرایی، به ترتیب گزارة بدیهی، گزارة نظری موجّه با شهود، گزارة نظری موجّه با استدلال، و گزارة نظری موجّه با اقناع، گزاره­های بیشتر یقینی به سمت گزاره­های کمتر یقینی هستند. این پژوهش مسبوق به سابقه نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Certainty as the manifestation of Existence in Sadra's theosophy

نویسنده [English]

  • Abdollah Salavati
Associate professor of Shahid Rajaee Teacher training university, Tehran, Iran,
چکیده [English]

Some has regarded the certainty as a univocal concept, but some considered it as a gradational notion which spoken of certainty and more certainty. The main question is: has certainty in Sadra's philosophy been regarded as univocal or gradational? In other words: how can certainty be explained in the existential approach? The achievements of this research are: since the being is gradational reality and certainty can be considered as an existential phenomenon or a state of being, certainty will be gradational concept ontologically. In Mulla Sadra’s works, at least four syntaxes of certainty can be concluded: 1. the certainty as a manifestation and the state of being; 2. the mechanism of the acquisition and the existential function; 3. Six-based of certainty; 4. spectacular variety. Therefore, the certainty as regarded in Mulla Sadra’s philosophy as a gradational thing can be applied to the obvious proposition, a justified statement acquired by intuition, a theoretical justified proposition acquired by reasoning, and a justified- hypothetical proposition obtained by persuasion, more precise propositions led to less certain propositions, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Certainty
  • gradational Certainty
  • Knowledge
  • being
  • Mulla Sadra

Audi, Robert (2015), Epistemology, Translated by Ali Akbar Ahmadi, Tehran, Research Center for Islamic Culture and Thought. [In Persian]

Al- Farabi, Abu Nasr, (2011), Al mantiqiat, Edited by Muhammad Taqi Danesh Pajhuh, Qom. [In Arabic]

Ghaffari, Hossein, Maziar, Amir (2016), maarefat shenasi dar falsafeie islami, Tehran, Hekmat Publications.

Fine, gail, 2006, inquiry in the meno, the Cambridge Companions to plato, Cambridge University Press.

Fyumornton, Richard (2011), Epistemology, translated by Jalal Payani, Tehran, wisdom.

Heli, (1991), Al-Qaeda Al-jalyyah  fi sharhe Al-resalato  Al-Shamyyah , First Edition, Introduction and Research of the Sheikh Farsi of Hassoun Qom, the Institute of Al-Nasr al-Islami. . [In Arabic]

Hossein Zadeh, Mohammad, (2018), marefah; chisty and emkan; 1 volume; Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research; Publishing Center - Qom  Iran; First edition. [In Persian]

Ibn Sīnā, (1984), Al-Shafa (Al-Mantiq), Qom, the school of Ayatollah al-Marashi to study Saeed Zayed and ...[In Arabic]

Javadi Amoli, (2007), Rahigh Al- Makhtom, by Hamid Parsaniya, Third Edition, Qom, Isra. . [In Persian]

--------- , (2010), Al-tasnim 2, Research of Ali Islami, Qom, Isra. [In Persian]

Kamal, Muhammad, (2006),Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, ashgate.

Kashfi, Abdolrasoul, (2006), "daste bandi nazaryyehaye tojihe maarefat shenakhti", Hekmat No 8, Autumn and Winter. [In Persian]

Klein, P. D. (2010) "Certainty", in A Companion to Epistemology, Second EditionJonathan, Dancy, Ernest, Sosa, and matthias steup, Oxford, Blackwell.

--------, (1998), "Certainty", Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Version 1.0, London and New York: Routledge.

 kvanvig, jonathan, (2003), the valu e of knowledge and the pursuit of understanding, cambridge university press.

Moyal-Sharrock, danièle, (2004), Understanding Wittgenstein’s on Certainty, new york, palgrave macmillan.

Plato, (1997), Theaetetus, in: Complete Works, edited, with introduction and notes, by john m. cooper,associate editor d. s. Hutchinson, hackett publishing company indianapolis/cambridge.

-------, (1997), Meno, in: Complete Works, edited, with introduction and notes, by john m. cooper,associate editor d. s. Hutchinson, hackett publishing company indianapolis/cambridge.

Pollock, john l, Cruz,  joseph, Contemporary Theories of Knowledge, second edition, rowman & littlefield publisher.

Qayesari, Davood (1996), sharhe Fusus al-Hikam, Tehran, Printing: First, the Scientific and Cultural Company. [In Arabic]

Shirazi, Sadr al-Din M, (1981) Al-Hikmah al-Motaaliya fi al-Asfar al-Arba’ah al-Aqliyya, Beirut: Dar al Ihia al Torath. [In Arabic]

--------------------, (no date), Iqad ai-naimin, 1 volume, Tehran, Islamic Association of Philosophy and Philosophy of Iran, First edition. [In Arabic]

----------------------------, (1999), Huduth al-‘alam, Correction and Research: Tehran, Islamic Foundation of Islamic Sedra. [In Arabic]

--------------------, (1984), Al- Mashaer, Tehran, Tahuri. [In Arabic]

----------------------------, (1981 B). Al-Shavahed Al-Rububiyah. Thran:  University Publishing Centre. [In Arabic]

----------------------------, (1987), Al-tafsir, 7 volumes, Qom, awakening, printing: second. [In Arabic]

Soleimani Amiri, Askari, (2016), usul va ghavaede borhan, Qom, Supreme Council of Wisdom.

Reed, Baron,  (2011), "Certainty", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2011/entries/certainty/

Tabatabaei, Mohammad Hussein, (1981), Burhan, Second Edition, Qom, Bostan Book Publishing Center, Islamic Propagation Office of the Qom Seminary. [In Persian].

----------------------, (1985), usul falsafe va raveshe realism, 5 vols, Printing: Second, Tehran, Sadra. [In Persian]

Wittgenstein, ludwig, (1969),  On Certainty,edited by g. e. m. anscombe and go ho von wright ,translated by denis paul and g. e. m. anscombe ,basil blackwell oxford.-