معرفت شناسیِ حقیقت وجود در فلسفة ملاصدرا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، عضو هیئت علمی گروه فلسفه و حکمت اسلامی

چکیده

در فلسفة ملاصدرا نه مفهوم وجودِ مشایی و نه نور ماهویِ اشراقی، بلکه حقیقت وجود، مبنای تمام مسائل فلسفی است. لذا با این نگاه، ملاصدرا با تفکیک بین مبدأئیت مفهومی و مبدأئیت مصداقی وجود، بر جایگاه هستی بخشی و معرفت بخشی حقیقت وجود تأکید می کند. بنابراین این سؤال مطرح می­شود که حقیقت وجود به عنوان مبدأ التحقق و مبدأ المعرفه، چگونه شناخته می­شود؟ با کاوش در آثار ملاصدرا به این نتیجه رسیدیم که ملاصدرا به اندازة بعد هستی شناختی، به بعد معرفت شناختیِ حقیقت وجود اهمیت نداده است، ولی برای شناخت حقیقت وجود دو پاسخ ارائه داده است: شناخت از طریق ماهیت که یک شناخت مفهومی و حصولی است و شناخت از طریق شهود و علم حضوری. در این مقاله تلاش می­شود با رویکرد تحلیلی، این دو پاسخ مطرح و مورد واکاوی قرار بگیرد و این پرسش نیز بررسی می­شود که علم حضوری به حقیقت وجود چه قسمی از اقسام علم حضوری است؟و اساساً مصداق حقیقت وجود در فلسفة ملاصدرا چیست؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Epistemology of the Real Being in Mulla Sadra’s philosophy

نویسنده [English]

  • Sohrab Haghighat
Assistant professor at theology school,Azarbayjan Shahid Madani university
چکیده [English]

In Mulla sadra’s philosophy, the foundation of all philosophical issues is neither peripatetic’s concept of Being nor illuminating essential light but the Reality of Being. Accordingly,  Mulla Sadra emphasizes on the status of the Reality of Being as source of knowledge and realization by distinguishing between conceptual and existential origin. So the question arises, that the Reality of Being as source of knowledge and reality how can be recognized? By exploring  Mulla Sadra’s works, we concluded that although Mulla Sadra did not care about the epistemological dimension of the reality of Being as much as the ontological dimension, but there are two answers: conceptual and acquired knowledge and knowledge by presence and vision. In this paper, we try to analyze these two responses by an analytical approach. Also it examines this question that what kinds of knowledge by presence belong to the reality of Being. And what is the reference of the reality of Being in Mulla sadra’s philosophy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • the reality of Being
  • Knowledge
  • Mulla Sadra
  • intuition
  • knowledge by presence

Ashtiyani, sayyid jalal al-din,(undated), Being in philosophy and mysticism, Tehran, movment of muslim women. [In Persian]

Ibn saina, (1984) al- shifa, ai-ilahiyyat, critical edition by al-ab qanavati and saeid zaed, Tehran.nisir khosrow. [In Arabic]

------------, (1992), al-mobahithat, critical edition by mohsin bidar, qom, bidar publication. [In Arabic]

------------, (2000), al-nijat minal- gharg fi bahri zalalat, critical edition and Introduction by mohammad taqi Danish pazhoh, Tehran, Tehran university. [In Arabic]

------------, (1982) al- mantiq al-mashriqiin, qom, institute of al-marashi al najafi. [In Arabic]

Walter trence stace, (1979) mysticism and philosophy translated by bah al-din khorramshahi, Tehran, soroush publication. [In Persian]

Isfarayini nishabori, fakhr al-din, (2002), commentary on ibsina’s al-nijat, critical edition and Introduction by hamid naji isfahani, a society of cultural works and glories. [In Arabic]

Aristotle, (1986), Metaphysics, translated by sharaf al-din khorasani, Tehran, goftar publication. [In Persian]

Toshihiko, izutsu, (2000), the fubdemantal structure of sabzewari’s metaphysics, translated by jalal al-din mojtabawi, Tehran, Tehran university. [In Persian]

Hairi yazdi, mahdi, (1988), knowledg and testimony, Tehran, Foundation of Cultural and Humanities Studies Publication. [In Persian]

Javadi amoli, morteza, (1996), rahiq makhtoom, vol1, qom, isra publication. [In Persian]

Sabzewari, mulla hadi, (1987), taliqa on al- Hikmat al - muta‘aliya fi- asfar al ‘aqliyya al - arba‘a, vol1,3,6, dar ihya al- torath al-arabi publication. [In Arabic]

Suhrawardi, shihab ol-din(2001) talwihat wa al-motarehat, critical edition by henry corban, tehran, Foundation of Cultural and Humanities Studies Publication. [In Arabic]

Salehi kermani, mohammad reza, (undated), Being in view of the Muslim philosophers, qom, pirouz publication. [In Persian]

Sadra- adin shirazi, mohammad bin Ibrahim, (1961), almazahir al alahie, critical edition and Introduction by sayyid jalal al-din Ashtiyani, mashhad, khorasan publication. [In Arabic]

-----------------------------------------------------, (1987) al-mabda wal maad, critical edition and Introduction by sayyid jalal al-din Ashtiyani, Tehran, imperial Iranian academy of philosophy. [In Arabic]

-----------------------------------------------------, (1984) al mashair, critical edition by henry corban, tehran, tahouri publication. [In Arabic]

-----------------------------------------------------, (1996), collection of  sadr ol-motallehin’s treaties, critical edition and Introduction by hamid naji isfahani, Tehran, hikmat publication. [In Arabic]

------------------------------------------------------,(2000) commentary on quran, edited by mohammad  khajawi, qom, bidar publication. [In Arabic]

-----------------------------------------------------, (2003a), glosses upon ilahiyat al-shifa, critical edition and Introduction by najaf goli habibi,  Tehran,  foundation of sadra Islamic philosophy. [In Arabic] 

-----------------------------------------------------, (2003b), al-shawahid al- rububiya, critical edition and Introduction by mostafa mohaqiq damad, Tehran,  foundation of sadra Islamic philosophy. [In Arabic]

----------------------------------------------------, (2006), commentary on usul al kafi, critical edition and Introduction by  mahmood fazel yazdi motlaq , Tehran,  foundation of sadra Islamic philosophy. [In Arabic]

-----------------------------------------------------, (2007a), iqaez ol- naemin, critical edition and Introduction by mohammad khansari, Tehran,  foundation of sadra Islamic philosophy. [In Arabic]

----------------------------------------------------- , (2007b), mafatih ol- gheyb, critical edition and Introduction by by najaf goli habibi Tehran, foundation of sadra Islamic philosophy. [In Arabic]

---------------------------------------, (1987),al- Hikmat al - muta‘aliya fi- asfar al ‘aqliyya al - arba‘a , vol1, Beirut, dar ihya al- torath al-arabi publication. [In Arabic]

Tabatabaii, mohammad hosein, (1983), nihayat ol –hikma, qom, institute of Islamic publication. [In Arabic]

Lahigi, mohammad jafar ibn mohammad sadiq,(1997) commentary on al-mashair, critical edition and Introduction by sayyid jalal al-din Ashtiyani ,Tehran, amirkabir publication. [In Arabic]

Kindi, abu yusif yaqub bin ishaq, (1950), alkidi’s treaties, critical edition and Introduction by mohammad aburidah, qahira, dar ol fikr al-arabi. [In Arabic]

Motahhari, morteza, (1999), compelet works, vol7, Tehran, sadra publication. [In Persian]