معانی «موجود» در وجودشناسی ارسطو و تحول آن نزد حکمای مشا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد فلسفه دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

«وجود» نخستین پایة هرگونه آگاهی و لاجرم به طریق اولی، متعلق مابعدالطبیعه قرار گرفته است. ارسطو در مواضع مختلف کتاب مابعدالطبیعه درباب «موجود چونان موجود»(to on) سخن گفته و بیان می‌دارد «موجود دارای معانی بسیار است.» او بیش از آنکه در آن کتاب از واژۀ «وجود» استفاده کرده باشد از «موجود» نام می‌برد و در کتاب هفتم می‌‌گوید «آنچه از دیرباز مایه سرگشتگی بوده این است که «موجود» چیست؟» پرسش دیرین در ساحت مابعدالطبیعه این بوده است که براستی «موجود» نزد ارسطو چه معنایی دارد؟ و معانی وجود چه تأثیری بر نظام مابعدالطبیعی ارسطو گذاشته است؟ آیا این معانی به یکدیگر قابل تحویل هستند یا خیر؟ دربارة اینکه معانی «موجود» نزد ارسطو به چند گونه است، نزد مفسران اختلاف‌نظر وجود دارد؛ کسانی مانند توماس آکوئینی «معانی پنجگانه»، فارابی «معانی سه‌گانه» و ابن‌سینا نیز «معانی پنجگانه» را برای آن لحاظ می‌کنند. در این نوشتار ضمن بررسی دیدگاه ارسطو براساس مابعدالطبیعه و نگاهی به دیدگاه توماس آکوئینی، چهار معنا برای «موجود» نزد ارسطو بیان می‌کنیم (موجود بالعرض، موجود به معنای صدق، موجود بالقوه و موجود بالفعل، موجود به معنای مقولات) و در ادامه به سرگذشت معنای «وجود» نزد حکمای مشا، بویژه فارابی و ابن‌سینا خواهیم پرداخت برحسب مبانی فلسفی‌شان معانی چندگانه‌ای لحاظ کرده که با معانی «موجود» نزد ارسطو بسیار متفاوت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Meaning of being in Aristotle’s Ontology and its transformation with Peripatetic philosophers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein kalbasi ashtari 1
  • Mastaneh Kakaiy 2
1 Professor of Philosophy of Allameh Tabatabaii University
2 PhD Student Philosophy of Allameh Tabatabaii University
چکیده [English]

Being is the first basis of recognition and the first issue for the metaphysics. Aristotle has said in different pages of the metaphysics on "being qua being" means “to on” and emphasized," Being has various meanings." He, rather than 'Being', has used "being" or existent. He, in the seventh book, has said: What has long been a source of confusion is that “what is being?” What does “being” mean? These meanings of existence, what effect does have on Aristotle's metaphysical system? Whether these meanings can be delivered to each or not? The meanings of "being” in Aristotle’s thought are controversial issue among scholars. Someone like Thomas Aquinas takes five senses and Farabi three senses and Avicenna five meanings for the existent. In this paper, while analyzing Aristotle's view based on metaphysics and looking at Thomas Aquino's perspective, we have delivered four meanings for "being" in Aristotelians. (Being of per accident, being of per true, being of potentiality and actuality, being of categories) And in fallowing, for the adventure of the meaning of "being", we will pay attention to the peripatetic philosophers, especially Farabi and Avicenna, according to their philosophical principles who have considered various meanings for the existent which are very different with Aristotle's meanings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • being
  • Potentiality
  • Actuality
  • True
  • Categories

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