عنوان مقاله [English]
Mosques in the history of Iran’s architecture have always been in the culmination of Islamic art and architecture. The architecture of the mosques seeks to receive an inspiration from the concepts of divine word to create a space which joins the heavenly world to material world and create a single spiritual environment. The study proposed to compare 9 traditional mosques in Yazd in terms of the spiritual indicators employed in the architecture of these mosques. The research method was descriptive-analytical. In the first step, a field-library study was conducted to conclude the spiritual indicators of the mosques from reliable sources, and then these indicators were confirmed by 8 experts in this field. In the second step, the data were tested analytically using SPSS and VIKOR method. The indicators studied in this paper were: 1. Golden ratio, 2. Being symmetry and coupling of components 3. Curved shapes and lines, 4. Observing the use of warm and cold colors together, 5. Materials, 6. Use of sensory integration, 7. Hierarchy, and 8. Conceptual decorations. The results show that Yazd Grand Mosque, Hazireh Mosque, Rig Mosque and Mulla Esmaeil Mosque are in an acceptable level in terms of spiritual tranquility indicators.
Ibn-Manzour (1985). “The Arabic language”, Adab-va-Hozeh Press. [In Arabic]
Armanshahr Consultant Engineers (2008), “Investigation and detection of historical Buildings and sites of Yazd”, Master plan of Yazd, Yazd Municipality, pp. 1-101. [In Persian]
Bavman, Z. (1998). Religion, Modernity, and Post modernity, Blackwell, Oxford.
Burkhart, T. (1993). “A commentary on principles and philosophy of Islamic art”, Avani, G., R., Proceedings of spiritual art basics, Tehran: Office of Religious Studies of Art.
Dictionary, O. E. (1989). Oxford English dictionary. Simpson, JA & Weiner, ESC.
Glaister, G. A., & Farren, D. (1996). Encyclopedia of the Book (p. 117). Oak Knoll Press.
Hick, J. (2000). The religious meaning of life. J. Runzo & NM Martin.
Kaisler, N. (1996), “The philosophy of religion”, Ayatollahi, H., R., Vol. 1, Tehran: Hekmat Press.
Nahj al-Balagha (2014). Ansarian, H., Tehran: Ayeen Danesh Publications. [In Arabic]
Nasr, H. (2002), “Cognition and spirituality”, Rahmati, E., Tehran: Suhrawardi Research and Publishing Office.[In Persian]
Tabatabaee, M., H. (1975). “The Shia spirituality and another 22 articles”, Qom: Shia publications. [In Persian]
Bemanian, M., R. (2007). “An investigation into the role of God in Architecture of Muslims”, International Journal of Engineering Science, Iran University of Science and Technology, No. 5, Vol. 18, pp. 37-44. [In Persian]
Abad, A. S. H., & Zadeh, G. L. (2016). The Necessity of Revitalizing the Traditional Elements Effective on Economic Sustainability and Cost Management (Case Study of Tabatabai's House). Procedia Economics and Finance, 36, 81-88.
Abedi Jafari, H., Rastegar, A. (2007). “The emergence of spirituality in organizations”, Journal of Management Science, Tehran, 2nd year, No. 5. [In Persian]
Abedini, A., Karimi, R. (2017). “Analysis of housing indicators in West Azarbaijan province based on VIKOR method”, Journal of Geography and Urban Regional Planning, No. 23, pp. 61-76. [In Persian]
Behdad, H., Jafari Jalali, B. (2012). “An investigation into gypsum-brick ornaments with an approach to Yazd Jame Mosque”, Journal of Fine Arts-Visual Arts, University of Tehran, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 67-74. [In Persian]
Falahat, M., S. (2005). “The role of physical design in the sense of place in the mosque”, Journal of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, No. 22, pp. 35-42. [In Persian]
Farhangi, A., A., Rastegar, A. (2006). “Presentation and expalanation of a motivational model based on spirituality of employees”, Journal of Shahed University, No. 20, pp. 1-24. [In Persian]
Fattahi, A., Bayat, N., Amiri, A., Nemati, R. (2013). “Measurement and prioritization of social sustainability in rural areas of Delfan city using VIKOR decision making model”, Journal of Regional Planning, 3rd year, No. 11, pp. 65-78. [In Persian]
Gerbar, E. (1997), “The mosque in contemporary Islamic societies”, Najafi Barzegar, H., Journal of Art, No. 33, 324-331.
Golshan, S. (1998). “Primary monuments of Grand Jame Mosque of Yazd; reviewing the history of Grand Jame Mosque of Yazd”, Sofeh Journal, Shahid Beheshti University, Vol. 8, No. 1-2. [In Persian]
Houmani Rad, M., Tahbaz, M. (2014). “An investigation into the role of light in spirituality of contemporary mosques”, Armanshahr Journal, pp. 11-23. [In Persian]
Khoini, R., Hatef, B. (2017). “Designing a mosque based on indicators affecting the brain Function to reduce stress”, Journal of Center for Research on Neuroscience, Institute of Sciences, Neurology and Behavior, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences. [In Persian]
King, U. (1999). “Spirituality in New Handbook of Living Religions”. pp. 667-681.
Mahdi Nejad, J., Taher Tolodel, M., Azemati, H., Sadeghi Habib Abad, A. (2017). An Essay on Islamic-Iranian Architecture and Sacred Art Features in Terms of Architectural Excellence. Journal of Ontological Researches, 5(10), 31-50. [In Persian]
Marzband, R., Zakavi, A., A. (2012). “Spiritual health indicators in terms of revelatory teachings”, Medical Ethics Quarterly, 6th year, No. 20, pp. 69-99. [In Persian]
Muldoon, M. & King, N. (1995). “Spirituality, health care, and bioethics”. Journal of Religion and health, 34(4), 329-350.
Nashri, S., Mazaherian, H., Memarian, G., H., Kazempour, H., R. (2017). “Typology and geometric-structural analysis of Yazdi-Bandi in Iranian architecture”, Journal of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 53-64. [In Persian]
sadeghi habib abad, A., Mahdi Nejad, J., Azemati, H. (2018). Review and Assessment of Influential Components on Creating and Promoting the "Sense of Spirituality" in the Architecture of the Mosques. journal of Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design, (), 1-1 [In Persian]
sadeghi habib abad, A., Taher Tolou Del, M., Mahdi Nejad, J. (2017). Recognition of Durability of Sacred Images’ Nature in the Iran Islamic Traditional Architecture Based on Identification of the Stable identity of Iranian Congregational Mosques. journal of Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design, 4(2), 17-30. [In Persian]
Saremi, H., R., Khodabakhshi, S., Khalaghdoost, M. (2016). “A Comparative study of nave orientation in traditional and contemporary mosques”, Journal of Iranian Islamic City, No. 24, pp. 65-84. [In Persian]
Schneiders, S. M. (1986). “Theology and spirituality: Strangers, rivals, or partners? Horizons, 13(2), 253-274
Tavakolian, Z., Bahmani Kazerouni, S. (2015). “An investigation into configuration of nave in historical mosques if Shiraz”, Journal of Architecture, Iran University of Science and Technology, No. 8, 3rd year, pp. 89-104. [In Persian]
Zomarshidi, H., Zomarshidi, Z. (2014), “The architecture of mosques in Iran and its sacred arts”, Journal of Iranian Islamic City, Jahad Daneshgahi Press, pp. 5-20. [In Persian]
Zomarshidi, H., Sadeghi Habibabad, A. (2015), “Islamic saints, hermits and referring to discussions about architectural decorations in their courts and holy shrines”, Journal of Iranian Islamic City, Jahad Daneshgahi Press, pp. 5-20. [In Persian]
Chiti, M. (1998). “Brick patterns in Yazd Jame Mosque”, Master’s thesis, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran. [In Persian]